Evaluation of the insertion torque, implant stability quotient and drilled hole quality for different drill design:an in vitro Investigation
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare the insertion torque and implant stability quotient between different drill design for implant site preparation.
Materials and Methods: Synthetic blocks of bone (type I density) were used for drilling procedures. Three groups were evaluated: Group G1 - drilling with a single bur for a 4.2 mm conical implant; Group G2 and Group G3 - drilling with three consecutive burs for a 4.1 mm cylindrical implant and for a 4.3 mm conical implant respectively. For each group, 15 drilling procedures were performed without irrigation for 10-mm in-depth. The drilled hole quality (HQ) after the osteotomy for implant site preparation was measured in the five-first holes through a fully automated roundness/cylindricity instrument at three levels (top,middle, and bottom of the site). The insertion torque value (ITV) was achieved with a computed torquimeter and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were measured using a resonance frequency apparatus.
Results: The single drill (group 1) achieved a significantly higher ITV and ISQ than the multiple drills for osteotomy (groups 2 and 3). Group 1 and 3 displayed significantly better HQ than group 2.
Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, the results suggest that the hole quality, in addition to the insertion torque, may significantly affect implant primary stability.
Key words: dental implants, resonance frequency analysis, bone density, insertion torque, drill precision.